What is transformer its construction and types: Updated 
What is Transformer?
A transformer is derived from two words transfer + form, which means to transfer electrical power from one circuit to another.
It should be noted that it has one great advantage; the input side that has a frequency also comes out in the same form as output, which means the frequency isn’t changed, which is one of the significant advantages of the Transformer.
They are used to decrease or increase the voltage of the electrical supply. It is essential for transmitting power station to your home.
Actually, it is a machine, but it doesn’t have any moving part, that is why it’s referred to as a static machine.
- Two windings
- Metallic Core in which winding is wound.
Core provides a path for flux, so maximum flux passes through the Core; hence two types of losses will occur. Metallic Core :
- Hysteresis losses
- Eddy Current losses
Together these losses are called magnetic losses or Iron losses. To overcome these losses, we have to construct it in such a way that it should have minimum losses.
As the Core is made up of thin lamination almost 0.5 or 0.5mm, which reduces the eddy current. This lamination is isolated from each other by varnish.
Windings or Coils:
Electric Current passes through windings, so we need a material that has less Resistivity, so copper is used for carrying the Current. The windings are isolated from each other and are subjected to I^2R losses, which are also called as copper losses.
So it’s based on the arrangement of coils and windings. Transformers are divided, which is discussed below.
Transformer Accessories :
- Oil level indicator
- Buchholz relay
- Breather and Silica gel
- Explosion vent
- Drain cock
- Rail & Wheel
Oil LEVEL INDICATORS;
BREATHER & SILICA GEL ;
- > Porcelain bushing used up-to 20 VK,
- > Oil field bushing used up-to 33KV,
- > Synthetic resin bounded condenser used up-to 66KV.
|Supply connected to the coil flux generated.|
- Step-up transformer
- Step-down Transformer
- Power transformer
|Step Up Transformer|
It should be noted that in the step-up Transformer, the number of turns in the primary coil is much less than several turns in Secondary coil.
Step Down :
|Step Down Transformer|
It should be noted that in step down Transformer, the number of turns in the primary coil is much higher than then the number of turns in the Secondary coil.
It depends on the transmission lines and also on distance.
This type of Transformer has lower ratings like 11KV, 6.6KV 230V. As the power that comes to our home is due to the distribution transformer, it is basically a step-down transformer.
If you want to down the power, we use a distribution transformer, as shown in the figure below.
- Current Transformer(CT)
- Potential Transformer(PT)
Potential Transformer is also called a voltage transformer, the main function of it is to step down the voltage to a safe limit or value.
Single Phase Transformer;
Three Phase Transformer;
The formula ;
|Efficiency of Transformer|
|Number of turns ratio calculation|
USES OF TRANSFORMER
- It can increase or decrease the degree level of Voltage or Current (when voltage builds, current declines, and bad habit versa because P =V x I, and power is the same ) in an AC Circuit.
- It can increment or decrements the estimation of the capacitor, an inductor, or opposition in an AC circuit. It would be able to go through an impedance moving gadget.
- It can be utilized to keep DC from going from one circuit to the other.
- It can segregate two circuits electrically.
- The Transformer is the primary motivation to transmit and disseminate power in AC rather than DC since the Transformer is not chipped at DC, so there are two challenges to transmit power in DC. In the DC Transition, the degree of voltage Step up by Buck and Boost Converter.
- The fundamental use of the Transformer is to Step up ( Increase) or Stepdown (Decrease) the Voltage.
- At the end of the day, Increase or decrease the degree of Current, while power must be the same.
Different Uses :
- Some transformers work as step up or step down if it is step up, it steps up the voltage before transmission.
- In the appropriation side, for business or residential utilization of power, the Transformer step down ( decrease) the degree of the voltage of 11kV to 220 V single stage and 440 V three-stage.
- The Current Transformer and Potential Transformer likewise used to force framework and in the business. Additionally, it is used for impedance matching.
- So these were the straight forward uses and use of a transformer.
Things To Remember
10 transformer safety practices for electricians and industrial professionals
The importance of proactive inspections in the safety of electrical transformers
Using industrial equipment that generates large voltages lapse in the handling of electrical transformers could cause costly equipment malfunctions and even deaths. This is the reason that inspection of electrical transformers is crucial. Regular inspections and maintenance can help detect potential issues early and avoid future problems.
Electrical transformers should be inspected for damaged connectors, worn-out power cords, and smells of burning and lost plugs, as well as malfunctioning parts, to avoid malfunctions and fire dangers. The maintenance team must pay close attention to the ISO 9001 requirements and UL CUL, UL VDE, CE standards to ensure a safe work environment for the equipment and electricians. (Source)
These safety tips for transformers apply to any transformer regardless of its maker or the manufacturer:
1. Ensure to inspect the electrical transformer before installation for any burnt smell, damaged parts, or irregularities in the continuity.
2. All maintenance work should only be done following the time the equipment has been disconnected and removed from the circuit before the system has been closed.
This is essential to ensure there isn’t any leakage of electrical current or continuity between the electrical current of the horse as well as the circuit.
3. The maintenance staff should be equipped with personal protective equipment that has been specifically designed to protect the workers when working on electrical transformers that produce high voltage.
4. Any modifications should not be made to electrical transformers that require over current protection. Over-current protection mechanisms in circuits and conductors should be adjusted to meet the manufacturer’s standards.
5. The transformer’s grounding must be maintained at all times. It stops the build-up of static charges and keeps the windings safe from coming into contact with the enclosures or core.
6. The transformer should be checked frequently to check for bolts, nuts or spare parts that have gotten into the.
7. The electrical transformer and the components that comprise it must be kept dry throughout the day since every contact may cause harm.
8. A sign-in sheet should be posted close to the electrical transformer, warning that people should stay clear of it so that workplace hazards can be avoided.
9. Anyone working with the transformer’s electrical components must be aware of the voltages used to power it.
10. If an anomaly or irregularity is noticed in the working of the transformer’s electrical circuit, it should be turned off, and all cables and power cords need to be removed before determining the part of the transformer that has been not working correctly.
Electrical transformers are a robust device and a vital source of energy for every industry operating with the help of electricity. Still, there are many hazards associated with this machine.
It is crucial to follow all necessary safety precautions to avoid any equipment destruction, electrical fire, or death and ensure that the operations are running smoothly at all times. (Source)
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