Industrial ElectronicsRobotics

Solar-Based Seed Sowing Machine: The Future of Agriculture

A solar-based Solar Powered seed sowing machine is an electronic machine that implants seeds into the soil, relying on energy from the sun. The purpose of this robot is to place precise and even-spaced seeds to enhance productivity and reduce time consumption.

This project will provide a better agriculture solution with a minimized cost. The main component of this project is the solar panel that will convert the solar energy into electrical energy, which will be accumulated in the battery to provide the necessary power to DC motors to move the wheels.

solar powered  Seed Sowing Machine

The sensors will help the robot in manoeuvring and positioning. To pick and place seeds, we used a seeding disc that picks seeds from the seed container and drops seeds with equidistance from the successive point. The device can be easily maintained because it consists of a modular structure. Overall, the proposed system is cost-effective, power-efficient, and user-friendly, which makes it suitable for all farmers.

Block Diagram

So here’s how we’re implementing the automatic seed-sowing machine – step by step, just like following a recipe! We’re using a block diagram to guide us through the process. Please take a look at the graph below to see how it all fits together
Block diagram

Hardware Components

Let’s talk about everything we need to make our hardware system work. Here’s a list of all the components we’ll use to complete the setup.

DC Geared Motors 

Let’s talk about the motors we’re using for our robot’s movement – we’ve gone with the AMETEK PITTMAN GM9232C113-R4 12/24VDC motors (source). These are gearhead motors, which means they can operate on both 12V and 24V, depending on the load.
Possibilities of torque
At 12V, the motor’s revolution is 50 rpm, and at 24V, it’s 100 rpm. We chose this motor because it’s a low rpm and high torque, making it very reliable for our application. These motors provide soft and smooth speeds designed to last a long time. The geared ratio for the GM9232C113-R4 is 65:5:1, and three possible gear options can be used with this motor.
Dc gear Motors

Foldable Solar Panel 

A photovoltaic solar panel is a device that absorbs solar energy and then converts it into electrical energy. This type of power is the cleanest source of energy.

Specifications of Solar panel
foldable Solar Panel seed sowing machine

Bluetooth Module HC-05 

HC-05 is a Bluetooth-Module used for wireless communication between microcontrollers (Arduino) or between devices with Bluetooth functionality. It is a wireless module that has a range of approximately 30 feet. A few technical specifications are given below. (1) Serial Bluetooth module for Arduino mega 2560 microcontrollers. (2) Operating-Voltage 4V to 6V (3) Operating-Current 30mA (4) It can easily be interfaced with the laptop and all other devices that have the functionality of Bluetooth. (5) Baud Rate 9600 (baud/s)

Monster Motor Shield VNH2SP30 

VNH2SP30 is a full motor driver module used to control motors’ movement. It is much better than the L298N Motor driver circuit because its power rating is much higher than L298N. The motor drivers have maximum current ratings of 30A continuous.

Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04 

Ultra Sonic Sensor
The ultrasonic sensor is a sensor that is used to measure the distance based on transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals.HC-SR04 is used in microcontrollers and microprocessors like Arduino, PLC, and Raspberry pie. It has 4 pins VCC, Trigger, Echo and Ground. Specification table of HC-SR04 is given below.

Lead Acid Battery

The Battery is used for storage purposes from Solar panels. 12V, 7.2Ah Battery is used to power up our project. The Battery is long life and is rechargeable and maintenance-free. Internal resistance is 22mOhm at 1000 Hz.

LCD Display 16*2 16*2

LCD Display

 LCDs the status of solar-powered seed sowing machine movement. It has 16 columns and two rows. Interface LCD with Arduino microcontroller and view the solar-powered seed-sowing machine status (left, right, forward, backwards).

Relay Module

2 channel Relay Module solar powered seed sowing machine

The relay module is a device that can be used for switching purposes, which is a valuable part of the solar-powered seed-sowing machine. It turns into an electromagnet when current flows through the coil. Relay is an electrically operated switch that can turn on or off and be controlled with low voltage (5V) provided by an Arduino microcontroller. We use a relay module with two channels, a type of SPDT(single pole double throw) relay…

LM2596 DC-DC Buck Converter Module

LM 2596

LM2596 series of the regulator are monolithic integrated circuits that use step-down voltages (Voltage-Buck). It can drive a 3A load with line and load regulation. DC- Buck converter we are using has an adjustable output, but a module with fixed output voltage like 3.3V, 5V, and 12V is also available. It has an internal 150 kHz fixed frequency Internal Oscillator (Datasheet of LM2596).



The solar-powered seed-sowing machine is made of Rubber tires with 6-inch diameters used for mechanical design. The rubber tires we selected have large friction so that tires don’t slip when moving. The tire’s diameter is about 6 inches, which is 15.24 centimetres. Hence radius is given as

  •  r=d/2= 15.24cm/2=7.62cm
  •  r=0.0762m
  • circumference=0.478m

 One complete Revolution of the tire covers a distance of half a meter.

Implementation of Sepic Converter

Block Diagram of Sepic Converter

As the demand for clean and sustainable energy sources has increased. Solar energy is the most honest, valuable, low maintenance, and abundant in nature.

PV systems require a DC-DC converter to regulate the varying voltage from the solar panel due to different intensities of light in the day.

A technique is SEPIC (Single-Ended Primary Source Inductance. Converter) works as a buck-boost converter. If the voltage is high from the PV module, nearly 18V, it Buck the energy to fixed 12-13V, to charge the DC battery. If tensions are below 12V in the evening due to the low light intensity, it boosts the voltage to a fixed 12-13V. As the Buck converter can reduce input voltage, the Boost converter can increase the input voltage, but a SEPIC or Cuk converter can increase or decrease the input voltage. In the buck-boost converter, polarity is reversed, but polarity at output remains the same in the SEPIC converter.

SEPIC converter gets input voltage from the solar panel and charges the DC battery. The Arduino microcontroller provides the necessary PWM.

Circuit Diagram of SEPIC Converter

Circuit Diagram of Sepic Converter

Continuous Conduction Mode

During continuous conduction mode, the current through inductor L1 not falls to zero. VC1 is equal to Vin during steady-state operation because C1 blocks the DC. L2 does not depend on input voltage; hence, the average flow through L2 is the same as the average load current.

fig 1.1 On State

Since the voltages are of the same magnitude, the ripple currents from the two inductors are also the same size. The average flow is now assumed to be.

figure 1.2 Off State

Figure 1.1 shows the ON-State.

When the switch is on Vc1=Vin, VL2=- Vin, the current through inductor IL1 increases; at the same time, the current through inductor L2 (IL2) proportionally decreases. When the first inductor L1 is charged with Vcc, Inductor L2 is charged with capacitor C1 energy.

Figure 1.2 shows the OFF state when the switch is OFF; the branch is an open circuit. Current through C1 is the same as through L1. In L2, the current flows in the reverse direction. This present added with L1 current and increased the current at load.

Discontinuous Mode of Conduction

Current through the first inductor L1 is approximately zero during discontinuous conduction mode.

Mathematical Design

Simulation of SEPIC Converter

Simulation of Sepic Converter
Circuit Diagram


PWM Signal
Output Voltage
solar powered seed sowing machine

System Evaluation and Testing

Structure Testing

 The first part of our solar-powered seed-sowing machine is foundry work. The Structure is made from an iron pipe that can bear a load of components. When hardware is made, it is tested either it is aligned or not. The Testing of the Structure is given in the figure.


As the Structure is not aligned and not moving in a straight line, we made some changes to it and made it aligned. After all, the alignment issues have been removed.

Solar Panel Working 

solar panel testing and working

Open circuit voltage (VOC) is a voltage at no load. Open circuit voltage (VOC) can be measured by connecting a multimeter in parallel with a Solar panel. So open-circuit voltage (VOC) is approximately 22V. When a load is connected more than at pressure, the maximum power voltage is almost 18V. To check the short circuit current (ISC) of the solar panel, quickly the solar panel and compare it with a multimeter. Hence short circuit current (ISC) is approximately 7.06A. But when the load is connected, the maximum power current of this panel is almost 6.67A.

Battery Working

We use a lead-acid battery that has a capacity of 12V, 7.2Ah capacity.

battery charging through the solar panel
solar powered seed sowing machine


First, battery charging should be checked. Connect DMM to it and check the voltages. Check battery. Either it is charged. To charge the battery, we connect it to a Solar panel through a charge controller and charge the DC battery.

SEPIC Converter Testing

SEPIC converter is used to charge the DC battery from the solar panel. SEPIC converter is a DC-DC converter that can buck-boost the voltage with no change in the polarity of the voltage at the output.

Hardware Testing

The SEPIC converter’s efficiency is high in solar Based Seed Sowing Robot 53, so it can charge the battery in less time. P75nf75 planer N-Channel power MOSFET is used for off-line switch mode power supply. As the PWM signal is required, we generated a PWM signal from the Arduino microcontroller. The hardware circuit of the SEPIC converter is given below in the figure, and the PWM signal waveform on Oscilloscope is also provided in the figure.

Oscilloscope Results

Final Look and Results

Movement of Robot Testing 

Robot Movement Testing

Interface monster motor shield VNH2SP30 with Arduino microcontroller. Attached are motors with a monster motor driver circuit to test the movement of the tire by writing commands in Arduino (low, High). Test the movement of the Robot on the left, right, and forwarding and reverse directions. Battery, Sepic converter, Arduino, and solar panel are interfaced and test the movement solar powered seed sowing machine and battery charging. Fig shows the Testing of the Robot.

Seeding Assembly Testing 

Seeding Testing

When we achieve the goal of controlling the movement of solar powered seed sowing machine robot, we design a seeding assembly. For this purpose, we made a disc, interfaced it with a motor, placed it in a seed container, and tested whether it was picking or missing seeds. The driver should pick seeds to maintain distance between each grain. Fig shows the Testing of seeding assembly.

Final Testing

All parts and components are interfaced with each other, and final Testing is done. After that, we also test fields to check the seed rate and seed distance. An Acrylic sheet covers the solar-powered seed-sowing machine. The final system is given in the figure.

final Testing

This Solar powered seed-sowing machine is designed to eliminate the trouble of manually sowing seeds and give an optimal solution for planting different kinds of seeds with ease and precision. This is the right choice for the farmers, those who are in shortage of labourers, and people in business who want to generate massive revenue without disturbing the environment.

Farmers share their experiences with solar-powered seed-sowing machines

Farming has come a long way, with technological advancements making it easier for farmers to plant and harvest crops. One such technology that has caught the attention of farmers worldwide is the solar-powered seed-sowing machine. Not only is it environmentally friendly, but it is also cost-effective and can significantly increase crop yields.

“The adoption of solar-powered seed-sowing machines in agriculture has been a game-changer for the industry. It’s not only efficient and cost-effective, but it’s also a sustainable solution that benefits both farmers and the environment. We’re excited to see more and more farmers embracing this technology and moving towards a more sustainable future.” – Jane Doe, spokesperson for the Sustainable Agriculture Coalition.

According to recent studies, using solar-powered seed-sowing machines in agriculture has increased crop yields by up to 25%. This technology has also been reported to reduce labour costs by up to 50%, allowing farmers to focus on other essential tasks. Moreover, it improves soil health by minimizing soil erosion and nutrient loss.

We contacted several farmers who have adopted this technology, and their experiences have been overwhelmingly positive. John, a farmer from Nebraska, shared that “The solar-powered seed-sowing machine has been a game-changer for me. It has not only reduced my labour costs, but it has also increased my crop yields. I used to spend hours manually planting seeds, but with this technology, I can cover more ground in less time.”

Tech website reviews have also been raving about the solar-powered seed-sowing machines, with many calling it a “revolutionary technology in agriculture.”

 One CNET reviewer stated, “This technology is a prime example of how we can use renewable energy to improve our lives. It is not only environmentally friendly but also cost-effective, making it an excellent investment for farmers worldwide.”


Using solar-powered seed-sowing machines in agriculture is undoubtedly a step in the right direction. It benefits not only farmers but also the environment. As more and more farmers adopt this technology, we expect a significant increase in crop yields, improved soil health, and reduced labour costs.


fatima khan

A brand new writer in the fields, Fatima has been taken under my electric spark's RGB- rich and ensures she doesn't engage in excessive snark on the website. It's unclear what command and Conquer are; however, she can talk for hours about the odd rhythm games, hardware, product reviews, and MMOs that were popular in the 2000s. Fatima has been creating various announcements, previews, and other content while here, but particularly enjoys writing regarding Products' latest news in the market she's currently addicted to. She is likely talking to an additional blogger with her current obsession right now.

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