Heartbeat Sensor Using Arduino

Heartbeat Sensor electrical equipment is applied to determine the heart rate, which is the number of pulses in a minute.
As we know that monitor body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure are the primary things that we do to prevent ourselves healthy and fit.



A healthy and comfortable heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to almost 100 times per minute.

Usually, a lower heart rate at rest refers to more effective heart function and more reliable health.
For more information, a well-skilled athlete maybe has a standard relaxing heart rate closer to 40 beats per minute. Tachycardia attaches to a quick relaxing heart rate, habitually above 100 beats per minute.

Tachycardia can be critical, depending on its underlying principles and on how to severe the heart for work; however, tachycardia significantly raises the chance of stroke, unexpected cardiac arrest, and death. The working figure for this project is shown below.


working of the heartbeat sensor
 

To regulate body temperature, often, thermometers are used and a sphygmomanometer to observe the Pressure of Arteries or Blood Pressure.


Heart Rate can be measure in two different ways:

One method is to manually verify the pulse either at wrists or neck, which may not be accurate as compared to instruments.
The other method is to practice a Heartbeat Sensor, which is shown below. 
heartbeat sensor
In this project, is made to monitor  Heart Rate using Arduino and Heartbeat Sensor.
In this project, you will find out the working and fundamental principles of the heartbeat sensor by following the Article Step by Step as follows.

What is the Heartbeat Sensor?

A heartbeat sensor is a small electrical instrument that is used to measure the heart rate.

Monitor heart rate daily is fundamental for athletes, patients as it decides the state of the heart. There are different methods to determine heart rate, and the specific conventional way is using an Electrocardiography.

 

The more comfortable way to recognize the heart rate, which is to utilize a Heartbeat Sensor. It appears in various forms and sizes and provides immediate access to measure the heartbeat.
The standard heartbeat sensor Available in the market can be found, as shown below.
heartbeat sensor

 

Components Required For This Project

The following Components Required to build this project if you want to buy it, the online link is given with each component.
  1. Arduino Uno——————>You can buy it from here.
  2. LCD Screen——————->Buy online Click here.
  3. Heartbeat Sensor————>Buy from here.
  4. Jumper Wires——————>Buy online from here.
  5. Breadboard¬† ¬†——————>mini breadboard can be found online.
  6. 10k ohm Potentiometer——>you can find it from university or from the market nearby.

 

Circuit Diagram

The circuit diagram of the project’s heartbeat sensor using Arduino¬†is given by.

circuit diagram
Wire up the circuit according to the above figure, make sure to use precisely the same components.

 

Principle of Heartbeat Sensor

The principle following the process of the Heartbeat Sensor is Photoplethysmograph. According to this principle, the variations in the volume of blood in an organ are determined by the changes in the strength of the light-emitting within that organ.

 

The two, a light source and a detector, we can arrange them in distinct ways: A Transmissive Sensor and a Reflective Sensor.

 

In a Transmissive Sensor, the light beginning and the detector are provided to front each another, and the finger of the person should be out on the transmitter and receiver.
The Reflective Sensor, on the other side, A light source and the detector should be placed next to each other, and the finger of the person must be arranged on the Top of the Sensor. An example is already given above.

Working of the Circuit

Now it’s the time to upload the code to the Arduino Uno. The Arduino needs to place our finger on the Sensor and watch the Arduino serial monitor.
Place any finger except the Thumb on the sensor clip. Based on the data from the Sensor, Arduino measures the heart rate and represents the heartbeat in bpm.
The Sensor will start its working and collect all the data, sit back and relax make sure not to shake the wires else it will give you wrong values which may lead you to problems.
When you see or able to watch the results of the Sensor displayed on the LCD, maybe the results washout; if you want to take another test, just press the reset button, and the process will begin again. 

Step by Step Procedure

At first, arrange all the components as already described above.

Step 1:

Use the heartbeat sensor as shown in the figure, it is already wired, if not then kindly wire accurately using solder.

the heartbeat sensor

Pin configuration of the heartbeat sensor is shown to make sure the signal pin is put in the A0 pin of Arduino and VCC to Vcc of Arduino and Ground to ground.

pin configuration

Upload the code to the Arduino, place the finger on the Sensor for the data to be displayed on the serial monitor, as shown below.

data on the serial port of Arduino

Now attach the LCD screen according to the circuit diagram.

Attaching Lcd screen

The Working image of the heartbeat sensor using Arduino.

working of our project
 
 

 

Application for Developing your own Heartbeat Sensor System ;

If you want to make the heartbeat sensor, you can easily make the heartbeat sensor by using the elements like an LDR, Op-amp IC LM358, and a Microcontroller as provided here.
We have already explained above about the principle of a heartbeat sensor when the finger tissue is shown using a light source, the light is transmitted after obtaining the modulated, i.e., getting taken by the blood, and the remaining is transferred. This modulated light is collected by the light detector.
A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is employed as a light detector. It operates on the principle that when the light comes on the Resistor, its resistance variates. As the light energy rises, which reduces the resistance. For this purpose, the voltage falls across the Resistor became down.

 

A main advantage of the comparator is to compare the output of the light-dependent resistance with the threshold voltage. When the threshold voltage decrease across the light-dependent Resistor, then the light with fixed intensity, from the light source which falls squarely on it.
The inverting pin of the op-amp LM358 is Connected to the potential divider system, which is set to the threshold voltage.
The non-inverting pin of the op-amp is connected to the Light-dependent resister when a human finger is shown using the light source, the energy of the light drops. This reduced light intensity decrease on the Light-dependent resister, which leads the resistance to be increased, which results in voltage drop to be raised.

When we see that there is a voltage drop between the Light-dependent resister or the non-inverting pin surpasses that of the inverting information, so for this purpose, a high signal is absorbed in the output of the op-amp, and in case of voltage drop, the low output is absorbed.

In this case, we see a high, low pulse.

The pulses which we get using op-amp can be applied to the Microcontroller. We can easily prepare the information to make the heartbeat rate, and if we want to see it in a better way, we can prepare a code for the Microcontroller to see the results on the LCD.

Code of  Arduino

You can download the code from this link Click here.